How far is it from Shenyang airport to Liaoning University & Shenyang Aerospace University?

From SY airport, there is about 31km to LN University and about 58km to SY aerospace university.

What are the transportations available to Shenyang from Beijing Airport?
Is there also a way to get a Visa if I come from Canada upon my arrival in Beijing?

Here are two ways for you:
1. There are direct planes to Shenyang at PEK. It takes around 65min. 
2. You can take shuttle bus line 3 to Beijing Railway Station, where there are high-speed trains to your destination. And the train travel duration shall be a little longer than 4.5hours.
For the visa, you need to apply in advance through Chinese Visa Application Service Center in Canada. Visa on arrival is impossible in this situation.